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Several years ago, Donald Rumsfeld, then Secretary of Defense, spoke about "known knowns, known unknowns," and the dreaded "unknown unknowns." He omitted one category, however—unknown knowns.

Those four sets of simple word pairs, used by Rumsfeld to describe military strategy, also convey powerful conceptual ideas with relevance to developing marketing plans and marketing strategies. Marketing decisions based on knowns—truth, facts, and evidence—are far more likely to succeed than those based on hopes, wishes, and mythology.

Let's take a look at these four sets of word pairs as they relate to marketing and marketing strategy.

Known Knowns

In a perfect world, known knowns would be facts based on scientific research and scientific methods, like marketing research, controlled experiments, actual test markets, product testing, advertising testing, historical sales results, and customer records. Known knowns would provide reliable and valid facts and evidence on which business decisions and marketing decisions could be based.

However, most known knowns are not really known knowns. For every scientific fact in the marketing world, there must be at least 99 myths, half-truths, illusions, and wishes. Compared to 30 years ago or so, corporations are spending a smaller share of sales on scientific research and scientific methods to answer marketing and strategy questions.

Moreover, corporate marketing research budgets are increasingly fragmented as new technologies, tools, and marketing fads drain resources away from core scientific and marketing research spending. Known knowns are a small category of knowledge and very likely a smaller category now than in the past.

Known Unknowns

These are variables we are fully aware of but have no reliable data to accurately describe. This is a large category, especially if we are completely honest with ourselves about what we really know and do not know. The human race tends to be overconfident about its knowledge and abilities and often bumbles along in a blissful state of unknowing. Therefore, we are very likely to underestimate the number of unknowns that surround us.

Some unknowns are easy to admit. We don't know what the weather will be like in the future, what the economy will do next year, and how long we will live. Other unknowns are more difficult to admit... Do we really know about our customers and their behaviors? Do we really know whether our advertising is working? Do we truly understand the variables that drive the success of our brands?

Unknown Unknowns

These are the blind spots—the problems, issues, and variables of which we have no awareness. These are often the most dangerous variables and situations we ever face because they can catch us completely by surprise. Unknown unknowns arise from lack of awareness, information or knowledge, and psychological or cultural blindness. Strong emotions, religious beliefs, rigid educational training, societal norms, cultural values, and rigid opinions can blind us to obvious truths.

The world of marketing is full of unknown unknowns. Every CEO should observe wide-ranging focus groups about his or her industry and company every year or two, without any consultants or employees around to taint and contaminate those revelations of unvarnished truth. Chief executives with thin skins may not be able to handle such an exposure to unknown unknowns, but those who can listen, accept, and learn find that such research can reveal many of the unknown unknowns.

Unknown Knowns

There are things we know but don't know we know. This is a strange category, and one might argue is an impossible category, a contradiction. When someone points it out to us, we say, "Of course. I know that."

Over the years, I've met with and discussed upcoming research projects with hundreds and hundreds of senior executives, marketing directors, and marketing researchers. These preparatory project discussions are intended to uncover what the company already knows (or thinks it knows). When the research project is completed and the results are presented to the same executives, a common reaction is "We are already aware and know all of this,’" even though they did not mention any of those "facts" during the meetings before the research.

This relates back to an earlier assertion that people think they know more than they actually know. Once facts are presented, we easily can delude ourselves into thinking we already knew the information.

This is only part of the story, however. In many cases, executives are aware of the findings after the fact. They have heard employees or customers mention some of the issues previously. However, the executives' awareness never reached a threshold level or decision level. The executives were not sure enough about the information to base any decisions on it.

We can know things but not realize how important they are. We can know things but not understand how the pieces fit together or know what is causing what. We can be blind to the obvious or blind to the implications of the obvious.

Unknown knowns are commonplace.

* * *

What this article hopes to convey is that "knowns" are fewer and rarer than people believe, and unknowns are ubiquitous. They surround us on all sides.

The ultimate quest of marketing research is the scientific search for truth, facts, and evidence on which executives can confidently base decisions. The ultimate prize for executives is to understand cause and effect, so they know which buttons to push and which levers to pull to change the trajectories of their companies and brands.

Continue reading "Marketing Decisions: Known Knowns and Unknowns, Unknown Unknowns and Knowns" ... Read the full article

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image of Jerry W. Thomas

Jerry W. Thomas is president and chief executive officer of Dallas/Fort Worth-based Decision Analyst Inc., an international marketing research and marketing consulting firm. He may be reached via 1-800-262-5974, 817-640-6166, or

LinkedIn: Jerry W. Thomas